Monthly Archives: November 2018

Quiz for January 29, 2019

What Do You Know About Civil War Prisons and Prisoners?

Q#1 – In July 1862, Union & Confederate armies agreed to formalize the prisoner exchange system. What was the title of the agreement that was named for the two officers who developed it?

Q#2 – The formal prisoner exchange system established a scale of equivalents for the exchange of military officers and enlisted men. What was the scale for a navy captain or an army colonel versus army privates or ordinary seamen?

Q#3 – Did the formal exchange agreement include non-combatants?

Q#4 – What were the specifications that captives had to agree to before they were paroled or exchanged?

Q#5 – Why did the prisoner exchange system collapse in 1863?

Q#6 – Starting in 1863, how many Union soldiers were sent to Confederate prison camps? How many Confederate soldiers were sent to Union prison camps?

Q#7 – Starting in 1863, approximately how many Union soldiers died in Confederate prison camps? How many Confederate soldiers died in Union prison camps?

Q#8 – Which Union prison was sometimes described as “The North’s Andersonville”?

Q#9 – What was the official name assigned by the Confederacy to the prison located at Andersonville, Georgia?

Q#10 – Approximately how many Union prisoners were imprisoned at the Andersonville Prison?

Q#11 – Nearly 13,000 Union prisoners died at Andersonville. What were the three chief causes for the deaths?

Q#12 – What was the name of the Confederate prison where a majority of Union officer prisoners were incarcerated? Where was it located?

Q#13 – What was the name of the Confederate general who escaped from the Ohio Penitentiary in 1863?

Q#14 – What was the nickname Confederate prisoners gave to the prison located at Elmira, NY?

Q#15 – What was the name of the first Federal military installation seized forcefully by a Southern state government that eventually was used as a Confederate prison?

Meeting of March 26, 2019

Join us at 7 PM, March 26, at Holder’s Country Inn in San Jose. See the UPCOMING MEETINGS/MEETING INFO tab for specific times and meeting details. This month’s topic is

Tom Roza on “American Revolution vs. the Civil War: Similarities and Differences”

The two most momentous events in the history of the United States of America occurred less than a century apart; the Revolutionary War occurred in 1775-1783 and the Civil War in 1861-1865. The objective of the Revolutionary War was to create United States of America; the objective of the Civil War was to preserve it. Being a student of history for over 60 years and having conducted extensive research into the root causes for each of these two conflicts, there are numerous social, economic, and political similarities – as well as some differences.

From a high level, people living in the Thirteen Colonies, because of the vast geographical distance from England and Europe in general, and the mixing of different ethnic cultures, with each passing day, were drifting further apart from their European ancestors. In the United States, the North had become more urban, industrialized, and its citizens were more migrant that produced a philosophy that America was a “Union of States”. Conversely, the South was more rural, agrarian, and its population was more sedentary; generation after generation grew up and lived in the same towns and counties; that produced a philosophy that America was a “Collection of Independent States”.

From a social perspective for the period leading up to the Revolutionary War, while most of the people living in the thirteen colonies were of English ancestry, cohabitating with other European ethnic groups as well as being in close proximity to Native American Indians produced a vastly different set of values from those living in England and other European countries. The American colonists saw themselves as more independent and were creating a more homogenous society. For the period leading up to the Civil War, American citizens living in the North had retained that homogenous society perspective that resulted in a more inclusive citizenry. American citizens living in the South sociologically had evolved into a more exclusive society that supported slavery and viewed non-Caucasians and those from non-Protestant religions as foreigners.

From an economic perspective, the British Parliament used its power to impose numerous trade tariffs, barriers and regulations that retarded the economic growth of the colonies. Similarly, the United States Congress imposed numerous trade tariffs, barriers, and regulations that retarded the economic growth of the Southern States.

From a political perspective, the thirteen colonies had no representation in Parliament and were denied the same individual rights that were granted to citizens living in England. With the abolitionist movement in the North attempting to prevent slavery from being allowed in the new states being formed in the western territories, Southerners feared they would lose political power in Congress that would both perpetuate the imposition of unfair economic laws but also eventually result in the abolition of slavery throughout the United States.

The presentation “American Revolution vs. the Civil War: Similarities and Differences” takes in-depth look at these two momentous events.

Tom Roza has been a student of history for over 60 years. His interest in both the Revolutionary War and the Civil War began with his elementary education in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and has evolved ever since. As an officer and the Secretary of the South Bay Civil War Roundtable, Tom has made numerous presentations on the topic of the Civil War to both his roundtable organization and other historical organizations in the Bay Area. Tom is also a published author of the book entitled Windows to the Past: A Virginian’s Experience in the Civil War, which has been accepted by the Library of Congress into its catalog. Tom is currently working on a sequel.

Meeting of November 27, 2018

Jim Rhetta on “Paying for the Civil War”

A very significant and invariably overlooked component to any conflict is that fact that it has to be paid for. Historian focus on tactical and strategic decisions and actions and commonly ignore the revenue sources necessary to maintain an effectively military force. Two examples will be presented of cases where Nations ran out of funds to continue a conflict, and the impacts of one to this day.

This presentation will cover how both sides funded their forces in the Civil War from the only three sources still available to nations today – Taxes, Bonds, and Printing Money. Both sides used a mix of these three sources in different ratios and faced social and economic limitations on how much could be extracted from each funding source. The amount of funds raised and management of the National economies involved had a strong correlation to the tactical results of the Civil War.

Meeting Minutes November 2018

Quiz for November 27, 2018

What Do You Know About Sherman’s March to the Sea?

Q#1 – Initially, Sherman’s March to the Sea had a more formal and official name; what was that name?

Q#2 – What was the primary objective that Grant & Sherman hoped to accomplish with Sherman’s March to the Sea?

Q#3 – The terrain of southeastern Georgia between Atlanta and Savannah was swampy and criss-crossed with numerous rivers and streams. What was the name of the man who was Sherman’s Chief of the Bridge Building Team?

Q#4 – For the campaign, Sherman’s force consisted of 62,000 men: 55,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, and 2,000 artillerymen manning 64 guns. What marching formation did Sherman establish for his troops?

Q#5 – Confederate John Bell Hood had taken the bulk of his forces in Georgia on his campaign to Tennessee in hopes of diverting Sherman to pursue him. What was Sherman quoted as saying in response to Hood’s maneuver?

Q#6 – What was the name of the military unit that served as Sherman’s personal escort on the march?

Q#7 – The 300-mile march began on November 15. The first real Confederate resistance was felt by Union General Howard’s right wing on November 22. What was the name of this battle and the results?

Q#8 – In what order did Sherman align his troops as they marched through Georgia?

Q#9 – What orders did General Sherman give to his foragers?

Q#10 – Southern civilians with property in the line of march, before Union troops reached their properties attempted to hide their food and valuables. What two groups of people did the Union troops rely on to help them find these hidden items?

Q#11 – On the few occasions when Union foragers were captured by Confederate troops while they were taking goods from Southern citizens, what was usually their fate?

Q#12 – As Sherman’s march continued towards Savannah, they were joined by a group of approximately 25,000 people. Who were these people?

Q#13 – On December 8, 1864, what tragic incident occurred at a place called Ebeneezer Creek located about 20 miles north of the city of Savannah?

Q#14 – When Sherman’s armies reached the outskirts of Savannah on December 10, what actions did they find that Confederate General William Hardee had performed which blocked Sherman from linking up with the U.S. Navy as he had planned?

Q#15 – On December 17, 1864, Sherman sent a note to Confederate General Hardee demanding the surrender of the city of Savannah. What were Hardee’s and the City of Savannah’s responses?